Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care (2022)

Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care

According to Christians, God does exist as the father, son, and Holy Spirit. He is supernatural existing in different forms, all of which are beyond human beings’ apprehension. He is the creator and sustainer of all that is present on earth. Despite the Christian perspective of holding science is the best way of obtaining information from the world. This holding of information is more of a relative idea that needs to be researched and the truth established. Christians believe that God is the giver of all we possess, including wisdom. In nursing, God’s love is reflected in a whole individual. Patients must not be treated as non-living objects; instead, they are to give a lot of respect since they are created in the image and willingness of God (Shelly and Miller, 2006)

Postmodern relativism, on the other, had suggested that truth does not exist. Its idea is that the fact is invented instead of being discovered. Relativism does imply that only personal purposes exist.

An example is an argument about what is morally right and wrong. An opinion that murder is inhuman is more of a subjective idea and needs to be picked as right or wrong. Postmodern relativism continues to state that human beings live not special more than those of other living organisms or even non-living ones ( Shelly and Miller, 2006). Nobody can find it easy working in the nursing profession, where there is limited truth, and murder might not be considered wrong.

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  1. Explain what scientism is and describe two of the main arguments against it?

Scientism is defined as a belief that everything can only be explained using science. Those who follow the idea believe, worship, and perform its rituals. People who believe in religion mostly seek information through traditions that have been passed in many generations; this differs from scientism, which does involve identifying the observables and variables. Scientism is fully built on the opinion that knowledge can only be acquired through science. This is the exact opposite of Christians and faith.

According to scientism, death is considered as the end of life, and there is no life after death. There is no belief a near-death experience does exist; they conclude that no scientific evidence on near-death experience and life after one is dead. Scientism considers human reason, and experimental methods are responsible for all the knowledge one possesses.

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Major arguments against scientism are on the proposal that life exists after death and that there is a God who controls us. God is considered a supernatural being whose powers cannot be even with science. Science being more of what we can see and physically appreciate, it tends to move away from beliefs on supernatural powers. Scientism needs to understand all kinds of faith and beliefs, even though some matters can never be proven scientifically. On life after death, may reincarnation may be considered scientific. The reincarnation process is not yet transparent or proven, but it has got support from both Christians and some scientists. Not all can be scientifically proven; some must be accepted through faith. Again, religion should never limit one’s reasoning; they must be flexible to appreciate everything around them.


a.)What is the ultimate reality?

In my perspective, ultimate reality is having a God, the creator of the world and everything in it. He gives us the freedom of living as we wish. In as much as we live as we wish, He asks us to pray and follow the commandments in the bible. In Deuteronomy chapter 30: 19- 20, God asks us to choose life so that we may live. In this verse, the heavens and the earth are like witnesses against our choice of either life or death, life-enabling our children to live freely. In general, there is a supernatural being controlling the universe. He might be beyond our understanding, making us unable to appreciate our presence without a strong faith.

b.)What is the nature of the universe?

The nature of the universe is greatly tied to the ultimate reality. God created the universe in six days before having a rest on the seventh day. Human beings were created and made disciples all over the world to pass God’s message to their children and grandchildren. The universe is an open one with a lot of activities being carried out, including miracles, divine intervention, and other angelic activities. The open nature of the universe has led to beliefs, which could never exist in a closed world. The world is made to accommodate all God’s creatures; it is made up of gases, water, and other living organisms. Oxygen gas, which is required by all living things, does exist in dissolved to sustain water creatures.

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c.What is a human being?

Human beings, in my perspective, are the most evolved inhabitants of the earth. Just like other components of the ecosystem, human beings are a product of time and chance. The human brain can imagine, do creative activities, speak different languages, and reflect on themselves. The brain can perform such activities because of the evolution it has undergone over time. God created human beings to take care of other living organisms on earth since their IQ was better. Human beings disappointed God after eating the forbidden fruit, making them suffer.

d.What is your knowledge?

My belief about knowledge is taking information from a reliable source and set it aside in my memory for future use. This information needs to be trustworthy and known to the

world. However, you respond to a question that will either test your knowledge or add to it.

My belief about knowledge is taking information from a reliable source and set it aside in

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my memory for future use. This information needs to be trustworthy and known to the

world. However, you respond to a question that will either test your knowledge or add to it.

In my perspective, knowledge is receiving information from reliable sources and storing it in the memory for future use. The stored data must be trustworthy and known throughout the world by most people. An individual’s response to questions can either test their knowledge or add more information to it. My understanding had considered being all the information we have ever gathered since birth, education, and experience are what push us in our daily lives. The level of expertise does vary based on one’s exposure and economic status.

e.What is your basis for ethics?

Ethics can be defined as moral values of whatever we learn from our guardians or parents; it is a guided way of limiting our decisions down from wrong and right. The world is always guided by ethics; this can be seen from activities like reporting those who are drink driving, sending home corrupt leaders, avoiding bribes, and avoiding cheating in examination. Ethics generally put some humanity in us. Without ethics, persons with mental disorders as the narcissist would run the world; Ethics like professional ethics help ensure equality at workplaces. Ethics are not only guidelines; they are like what society expects from us.

f.What is the purpose of your existence?

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Everyone’s purpose for existence is to find out his or her reasons for creation. We are all created with different abilities and talents; they all serve to ensure completion of the purpose of production. We all exist to serve a purpose, which does include serving God and obeying His commandments. God created us to be disciples all over the world and add more followers by baptizing them in the name of Jesus Christ is the son. My purpose had to say is to improve the lives of the less fortunate and all around me. Everyone is required to identify their use and serve it fully.


What is the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics? ›

Christianity offers a religious perspective on the nature of ethics and spirituality. It contends that spirituality is the religious and theological prism that explains the notion of God in terms of who, what and how. God is perceived as the eternal and all-powerful being above everything and everyone.

What is the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care? ›

Under the influence of postmodern assumptions, nursing care can also put emphasis on plurality, respect for cultural and individual differences, relativism of truth or reality, constructive discourse, different views to special knowledge, positioning, as well as listening to different voices.

How does postmodernism view Christianity? ›

In postmodernism, all religion, including Christianity, is reduced to the level of opinion. Christianity asserts that it is unique and that it does matter what we believe. Sin exists, sin has consequences, and anyone ignoring those truths has to face those consequences, Christians say.

What is ethics and spirituality? ›

Spirituality in Ethical Decision Making and Behaviors

people to understand their world and give them a meaning for life and existence while also shaping one's ethical, moral beliefs, attitudes, and values (Creighton-Smith et al., 2017).

What does Christianity say about spirituality? ›

Biblical spirituality can be defined as the process of the divine restoration and healing of the broken relation between the Triune God and humanity. As such, biblical spirituality is the response of a repentant human heart and mind to the loving heart and mind of God (1 Cor 2:12-‐13; Rom 8:14).

What are the ethics in Christianity? ›

Christian ethics emphasizes morality. The law and the commandments are set within the context of devotion to God but are deontological standards defining what this morality is. The prophets of the Old Testament show God as rejecting all unrighteousness and injustice and commending those who live moral lives.

What does postmodernism say about health and social care? ›

Results: Responses suggesting postmodern attitudes to health were prevalent: the majority of respondents appear to hold a holistic view of health, believe in individual responsibility for achieving health, reject medical authority, hold consumerist values, prefer natural products over chemical drugs, think most ...

What is postmodern moral relativism? ›

4.4 Fundamentals of Axiology. 4.4.1 Relativism. Postmodernism rejects universal moral and spiritual values and accepts the relativity of all values in all areas. Therefore, no specific value preference exists. Everyone should order their own values, value preferences, and approaches (Tajik, 2005; Rahnama, 2009).

What is postmodern relativism? ›

Postmodernists sometimes characterize the evidential standards of science, including the use of reason and logic, as “Enlightenment rationality.” The broad relativism apparently so characteristic of postmodernism invites a certain line of thinking regarding the nature and function of discourses of different kinds.

What do postmodernists believe about religion? ›

In a postmodern world there are no universal religious or ethical laws, everything is shaped by the cultural context of a particular time and place and community.

What does postmodernism say about religion? ›

According to postmodern philosophy, society is in a state of constant change. There is no absolute version of reality, no absolute truths. Postmodern religion strengthens the perspective of the individual and weakens the strength of institutions and religions that deal with objective realities.

What is the basic belief of postmodernism? ›

Many postmodernists hold one or more of the following views: (1) there is no objective reality; (2) there is no scientific or historical truth (objective truth); (3) science and technology (and even reason and logic) are not vehicles of human progress but suspect instruments of established power; (4) reason and logic ...

What is spiritual ethical care? ›

Five ethical principles to guide spiritual care are set forth: patient-centredness, holism, discretion, accompaniment, and tolerance. A number of specific ethical issues were then addressed and approaches offered based upon these principles.

How does spirituality affect ethical behavior? ›

Some have argued that religiosity and religious-based spirituality could promote unethical behaviour. For example, discriminating against another person who does not share one's belief system. It might even flow into hiring practices and how one treats another colleague at work.

Does religion play a significant role in shaping one's ethical values? ›

Religion does have a role to play in developing a sense of ethics, but it is rather limited. This is because religions tend not to emphasize the role of critical and independent thinking which is important in developing a sense of ethical responsibility.

What is the difference between Christianity and spirituality? ›

Spirituality and religion can be hard to tell apart but there are some pretty defined differences between the two. Religion is a specific set of organised beliefs and practices, usually shared by a community or group. Spirituality is more of an individual practice and has to do with having a sense of peace and purpose.

What does the Bible say about spiritual health? ›

Romans 12:1 says, “... present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship.” Then 1 Corinthians 6:20 reinforces, "For you were bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's.

How does postmodernism affect healthcare? ›

Postmodern cultural values have seriously impacted medical care and the patient-physician relationship. Corporate control of medical care, computerization of medical information and consumerism in the clinical encounter, plus the destruction of the myth of the physician are all embodiments of postmodern values.

How are sociological perspectives applied in health and social care? ›

Sociology can help learners understand the impact of social processes upon the health of individuals and social groupings. By studying how societies work it will help learners understand how social factors influence individuals' beliefs about health and why behaviour such as unhealthy lifestyle choices occurs.

What are the 3 sociological perspectives on health and illness? ›

Learning Objective. List the assumptions of the functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist perspectives on health and medicine.

What does postmodernism say about ethics? ›

Postmodern ethics instead aims at the emancipation of the autonomous moral self and the vindication of its moral responsibility. In many ways this anti-Enlightenment project of postmodern philosophy bears interesting similarities with the premodern tradition of Socratic philosophy.

What is postmodernism approach to ethics? ›

Postmodern Ethics is established from the deconstruction of metastory that we call justice (Derrida, 1997, pp. 20- 26). Derrida applies deconstruction on ethics and on the possibility of justice itself. Exercise of justice involves free will.

What do moral relativists believe about morality? ›

Moral relativism is the view that moral judgments are true or false only relative to some particular standpoint (for instance, that of a culture or a historical period) and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others.

What is postmodernism in the church? ›

Postmodern theology, also known as the continental philosophy of religion, is a philosophical and theological movement that interprets theology in light of post-Heideggerian continental philosophy, including phenomenology, post-structuralism, and deconstruction.

What is the meaning of relativism in ethics? ›

Ethical relativism is the theory that holds that morality is relative to the norms of one's culture. That is, whether an action is right or wrong depends on the moral norms of the society in which it is practiced.

What is relativism example? ›

Relativists often do claim that an action/judgment etc. is morally required of a person. For example, if a person believes that abortion is morally wrong, then it IS wrong -- for her. In other words, it would be morally wrong for Susan to have an abortion if Susan believed that abortion is always morally wrong.

What are examples of postmodernism? ›

Postmodern movies aim to subvert highly-regarded expectations, which can be in the form of blending genres or messing with the narrative nature of a film. For example, Pulp Fiction is a Postmodern film for the way it tells the story out of the ordinary, upending our expectations of film structure.

What does postmodernism think of the soul? ›

What Does Postmodernism Say About The Soul or About Self? There is no self-identity and no permanent soul or mind.

What does postmodernism say about society? ›

Postmodernism in Sociology

On these grounds, postmodernity is characterized as a form of social order in which the electronic media play a prominent role, symbolic codes are pervasive, and social identities are fragmented. These terms are also employed in the critique of sociological theory as a product of modernity.

What is the difference between Christianity and spirituality? ›

Spirituality and religion can be hard to tell apart but there are some pretty defined differences between the two. Religion is a specific set of organised beliefs and practices, usually shared by a community or group. Spirituality is more of an individual practice and has to do with having a sense of peace and purpose.

What is the Catholic understanding of spirituality? ›

Christian spirituality presumes, through God's grace, a human desire and capacity for growing in union with the Triune God. It encompasses the dynamic character of human life lived in conscious relationship with God in Christ through the Spirit, as experienced within a com- munity of believers.

What is spirituality in religion? ›

Spirituality is the broad concept of a belief in something beyond the self. It may involve religious traditions centering on the belief in a higher power, but it can also involve a holistic belief in an individual connection to others and to the world as a whole.

What is Ignatian Spirituality summary? ›

Ignatian Spirituality is a spirituality of action: to labor with Christ in building the Kingdom of God. Once a person responds to the call, St. Ignatius invites a person to pray to come to know Christ more intimately, love him more ardently and follow him more closely.


1. 04 Jan 24 01
(Johnny Ramirez-Johnson)
2. D. Beecher "Postmodern Europe? Human Rights, Democracy, & Neoliberalism" (Lecture 13)
(University of Tartu)
3. Prof Michael Welker: Called to Freedom
(The University of Edinburgh)
4. Christian Apologist Trains Teachers about Gen Z
(The King's Academy, WPB, FL)
5. Introduction to Spiral Dynamics "Green" Stage ("Green" in Integral Theory)
(Practical Integral)
6. WCB 2020 Antonio Sandu: Bioethical Acceptability of Euthanasia in Greek Orthodox Religious Context
(Editura Lumen)

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